Renal dysfunction is divided into two categories.
The first category can lead to acute renal failure while the second to chronic renal failure.
Acute renal failure is a syndrome characterized by sudden suppression of the nephron, to such an extent that there is a deficiency in maintaining the quality and quantity of body fluids at normal levels. As a result, fluids and electrolytes accumulate in the body.
Symptoms of acute renal failure:
- Little or no urine production
- Anxiety, stress, drowsiness
- Shortness of breath, chest pain
Each kidney contains tiny filters, the nephrons, which cleanse the blood of useless substances produced by the metabolism. In addition, they regulate electrolytes and body water. In the final stage of Chronic Kidney Disease, the kidneys are unable to perform their function, resulting in the accumulation of toxic substances and fluids in the patient’s blood.
Slowing down or even inhibiting the progression of Chronic Renal Failure is based on the following therapeutic goals:
- Early treatment of primary disease
- Low protein and phosphorus diet
- Dramatic treatment of albuminuria
- Avoid or limit salt intake.
- Blood pressure regulation <130/80mmHg (mainly via ACE inhibitors, ARB)
- Satisfactory glycemic control of a diabetic patient (glycosylated Hb Hb <7,5%)
- Treatment of hyperlipidemia
- Stop smoking
The progression of Chronic Renal Insufficiency leads to the stage of kidney disease where it is deemed necessary to replace kidney function either through dialysis, or through peritoneal dialysis, or through kidney transplantation.